這樣回上一頁
手指從螢幕左側邊緣往右滑
我知道了
全球中央
《全球中央》2015年4月號
穿梭全球各大城市之間、讓人不必在乎是否有站牌、只要舉起手就有車可搭、方便又來去自如的交通工具,非計程車莫屬了,台灣又稱為「小黃」,其他國家的計程車又有什麼特色呢?

騎士勳章依然耀眼

最新更新:2015/04/02 14:27

中譯/陳怡君(中央社編譯)

在英國,能獲得的最大榮耀之一就是受冊封為騎士。由國王或女王授予爵士(或是女爵士)頭銜,是英國悠久傳統。在中古時代,這個頭銜主要授給在戰場上驍勇善戰及具有騎士精神的人物,不過自1560年以來,封爵已擴及非軍事領域,在藝術、科學或商業上的佼佼者都能獲得這項殊榮。

冊封騎士的官方儀式,至今仍包括傳統上將一把劍放置在被冊封騎士的右肩,接著是左肩,但和過去相比,已大為降低受封對象的標準。在中古時代,這項儀式非常具宗教意義與儀式性。在封爵前一晚,這名即將被封為騎士的侍從,必須在城堡裡面的小教堂先沐浴淨化,接著跪下默禱10小時,等到「我冊封你為騎士」這句話宣布後,隨即展開盛大慶祝活動,接著舉行讓新科騎士展現「騎士技」的比武大會。可以想見,現代騎士候選人正式成為騎士前,可能只要快速沖個澡、換上體面衣服,肯定不用先跪地禱告好幾小時,或是穿上閃亮亮的盔甲。曾被封為騎士的名人名單一大串,演員包括鮑勃霍伯、安潔莉娜裘莉、安東尼.霍普金斯,導演史蒂芬史匹伯,音樂家保羅.麥卡尼、艾爾頓強和波諾;商界人士微軟創辦人比爾蓋茲,以及如美國前總統雷根也在其中。

拒絕授勳不是什麼新鮮事。早在13世紀,有許多軍人因拒絕冊封而遭到英王亨利三世處以鉅額罰款。當代不會再對拒絕受封的人罰錢,但是拒絕受封肯定會讓王室感到些許挫折。知名天文物理學家霍金基於個人理念而拒絕封爵,他說因為不喜歡頭銜;2000年,歌手大衛鮑伊也婉拒受封,聲稱「我真的覺得不知道這要幹嘛」;前披頭四成員約翰藍儂也曾為了抗議英國當時的軍事決定,而退回騎士勳章。或許近代最具爭議的冊封事件主角,當屬滾石合唱團主唱米克.傑格,他雖接受騎士爵位,但非由女王冊封。據說女王基於米克.傑格的反體制思想而不願為他舉行儀式,因此也就在當天排了膝蓋手術。米克.傑格曾指女王是「大巫婆」,這可能也多少影響女王為他授勳的意願。

儘管有些爭議,授封騎士和爵位在英國仍是重要且盛行,雖然某些人選招致批評,甚至有些人直言抨擊制度需要簡化。政府部長普藍提斯最近暗指「整個制度都需要改革」。儘管如此,我們現在還是能繼續推崇與讚揚受封這項傳奇性爵位的人物。

*看單篇不過癮?訂閱全本電子雜誌《全球中央數位雜誌

撰文及考題設計/英國文化協會教學團隊

In the UK, one of the greatest honours to receive is the knighthood. To be knighted by the King or Queen, and referred to as "Sir", (or "Dame" when the honour is awarded to a female), has been a tradition in the UK for ages. In medieval times, the title was awarded mainly to candidates who displayed great courage in battle, and who were considered to be chivalrous. Since 1560, however, the award has been extended to recognise non-military service, and includes champions in the fields of the arts, science, and business.

While the official ceremony for a knighting still includes the traditional laying of a sword blade on the right then left shoulder of the knight-to-be, the bar has been lowered in terms of what is expected of the recipient. In medieval times, the event was deeply religious and highly ritualised. The night before, the Squire who was to become a night was required to bathe in the Chapel of the Castle in order to purify his body. He was then required to kneel in silent prayer for ten hours before the famous words "I dub thee Sir Knight" were uttered. This was followed by grand celebrations, and finally a tournament in which the new knight would demonstrate his "knightly" skills.Modern day candidates for the knighthood, we can assume, would likely think to take a quick shower and put on some nice clothes before the big day, but they certainly aren't required to kneel for hours, or don the traditional shining suit of armour! The list of famous celebrities who have been knighted is long, and includes actors such as Bob Hope, Angelina Jolie, Anthony Hopkins, director Stephen Spielberg, musicians Paul McCartney, Elton John, and Bono, businessman and Microsoft founder Bill Gates, and former U.S. president Ronald Reagan.

*看單篇不過癮?訂閱全本電子雜誌《全球中央數位雜誌

To turn down the offer of a knighthood is nothing new. As early as the 13th century, so many military personnel were refusing the honour that King Henry III imposed a huge fine as punishment! No fines are imposed these days, but the refusal of a knighthood must cause some distress for the monarchy. Famous theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking passed on the offer on principle, saying he doesn't like titles. In 2000, singer David Bowie turned it down, saying "I seriously don't know what it's for". Ex-Beatle John Lennon returned his knighthood in protest of UK military decisions at the time.Perhaps the most controversial knighthood in recent times involved that of Rolling Stones front man Mick Jagger. He accepted the honour, but not from the Queen herself. It's reported that she didn't have the stomach to perform the ceremony because of Jagger's anti-establishment views, and conveniently scheduled knee surgery on the same day as the ceremony. Jagger's reference to her majesty as the "Chief Witch" at one time, may have had something to do with her decision.

Despite some controversy, the awarding of knighthoods and damehoods is alive and well in the UK. While many criticise some of the choices, even outspoken critics agree that the institution just needs to be simplified. Government minister Gordon Prentice recently suggested that "the whole system needs shaking up". For now, we can continue to admire and applaud those who have earned the legendary distinction.

knight in shining armour - 穿著閃亮盔甲的救難騎士 armour is protective military clothing (made of metal for early knights), but the phrase "my knight in shining armour" is used to describe someone who comes to the rescue of or saves another from a harmful or difficult situationchivalrous - 騎士精神的 courteous and respectful, especially towards womenlowering the bar - 降低標準 If people change the standards required to make things easier, they lower the barritualised -儀式化  always done in a particular situation and in the same way each timedon - 戴上 to put on (a piece of clothing)on principle - 出於信念 for personal moral or ethical reasonstitles - 頭銜 a formal attachment to a name, such as "Mr.", or "Dr."not have the stomach - 缺乏勇氣 to not feel brave or determined enough to do something unpleasant alive and well - 維持活躍 to remain active, current, or important needs shaking up - 需要改革 needs to be changed, re-organised, or re-examined

*看單篇不過癮?訂閱全本電子雜誌《全球中央數位雜誌

Choose T (True), F (False), or NG (Not Given) for the following statements:1. A knighthood is awarded only to those who show courage in battle. (F)2. All those receiving a knighthood need to pray for ten hours. (F)3. Present day knights are mostly actors or musicians. (NG)4. Stephen Hawking refused his knighthood for personal reasons. (T)5. The tradition of awarding knighthoods is no longer in practice. (F)

Choose the paragraph (numbered 1-5) that includes the following information:1. Suggestions in modern times for what needs to be done to improve the tradition of the awarding knighthoods. (6)2. A description of what happened in earlier times. (2)3. A comparison of the criteria needed to be considered for a knighthood. (1)4. An example of the consequences that once followed when a person decided to pass on the offer of a knighthood. (4)5. The writer's suggestion of what might be done by candidates in preparation for present day ceremonies. (3)

更多精彩內容請見《全球中央》2015年4月號;訂閱《全球中央數位雜誌》;本文由《全球中央》雜誌授權刊載,未經同意禁止轉載。

地機族