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《全球中央》2014年11月號
11月11日中國大陸光棍節,紅男綠女拚速配;美國風行網路約會,愛情騙子特別多。終結單身,光棍也慌了。各國婚友大搜密,帶您逛逛尋愛小路的不同風景。
《全球中央》2014年11月號

新廁所為印度婦女帶來方便

2014/11/18 09:05
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請同意我們的隱私權規範,才能啟用聽新聞的功能。

譯解/劉佳硯(中央社編輯)

108座以金盞花和彩帶裝飾的新廁所,在遭受悲劇打擊的小鎮上落成啟用,這是印度新任總理納倫德拉.莫迪(Narendra Modi)為窮困印度婦女推動終止戶外大小便政策中的一小步。

這些一塵不染的新馬桶,在這個星期天捐給了印度北方省(Uttar Pradesh state)的一個小村莊。這個村莊裡的弱勢婦女,長期懷著恐懼被迫在夜裡跋涉到荒野中上廁所。

建造這間廁所的衛生慈善機構Sulabh創辦人Bindeshwar Pathak說:「我相信沒有女人應該因為必須出門上廁所而失去性命。」

Pathak在烏沙提村莊(Katra Shahadatganj)告訴法新社記者說:「我們的目標是能夠在不太遙遠的將來,提供印度每家戶一座廁所。」

小村莊今年5月因為兩位女學童的屍體被發現懸掛在樹上,而登上了世界新聞頭條。女童的家裡和大多數村民的住家一樣沒有馬桶,因此她們被認為是想在入夜後到戶外上廁所。

警方仍在持續調查,這兩個分別為12歲和14歲的表姊妹是否遭到輪暴,雖然沒有人因此被正式起訴,五名一開始被視為嫌疑犯的男性也被釋放。

這起事件在印度引起極大的騷動,喚起大眾對2012年在首都新德里巴士上,那一樁致命女大學生輪暴案的記憶。然而,在這個案件中女童在夜裡外出上廁所的情況,在印度是很常見的。

聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)預估將近有5億9,400萬人(近印度一半的人口)在戶外大小便,情況隨著地區的貧窮程度更加嚴重。

全印度約有3億的婦女和女童被迫蹲在戶外上廁所,她們不僅暴露在疾病和細菌感染的風險之中,也暴露在被男性攻擊和騷擾的危險。

總理莫迪在今年8月獨立紀念日演說中,提出這個被視為禁忌的議題。他認為印度在接下來的四年裡,應該致力於確保每個家庭裡都有廁所。

莫迪表示,「雖然我們生活在21世紀,然而婦女因為必須到戶外上廁所而尊嚴盡失。你能想像她們面臨多少因上廁所而產生的問題嗎?」

三個小孩的母親Dhanwati Devi,同時也是小村莊裡獲贈一座新廁所的居民表示,她終於可以放下心來,不用在黑暗中害怕遭受攻擊。

48歲的Devi站在住家外面,以花環裝飾和藍、粉紅色油漆的小隔間廁所旁告訴法新社說:「我曾經夢想房子裡有一天會有廁所。現在我擁有了,覺得非常驕傲、也不用再受拘束了。」

Devi說:「我曾經非常害怕,在黑夜中走到荒野裡上廁所,因為隨時有可能被邪惡的罪犯攻擊。」

兩位受害表姐妹的叔叔表示,村裡的新廁所,對他的家人來說同時是「希望與絕望」的象徵。

因為法律因素而無法具名的叔叔告訴法新社說:「每一次我們看到這個廁所,就提醒了我們,兩個女孩的死亡是因為沒有早些擁有廁所。」

「但是新廁所也帶來了希望,因為家中婦女現在擁有更安全的環境,因為她們不再需要在黑夜裡冒險。」

歷任印度政府、慈善團體以及活動團體,長期以來致力增加村莊裡的廁所數目,並且鼓勵人民使用廁所。然而專家表示,有部分家庭認為在戶外上廁所是比較方便,其他的家庭則面臨新的公共廁所管線、汙水、維修等問題。

非營利組織WaterAid的研究人員Zach White說:「事實上,因為文化、宗教或傳統信仰的因素,有些人認為在戶外大小便比使用馬桶好。」

Zach White告訴法新社說:「對很多人來說,雖然是使用馬桶,但在家裡或附近排放大小便的概念是很奇怪的;在遠離住家以外的地區大小便被認為是比較衛生的。」

一份2012年世界銀行研究顯示,廁所的缺乏與其它公共衛生議題所衍生的疾病,如腹瀉和較低的勞動生產力,耗損印度每年近540億美元(約新台幣1兆6,512億元)。

慈善團體Sulabh的員工,目前將致力教育村民,有關公共衛生以及使用馬桶所帶來健康益處。

然而,烏沙提村的婦女卻不需要這樣的鼓勵。Devi說:「當你需要的時候,有廁所可以使用是很奢侈的,現在我們有了這項奢華,就不會浪費它了。」(完)

【更多精彩內容請見《全球中央》2014年11月號;未經同意禁止轉載。】http://www.cna.com.tw/newsworld

New village toilets a small step for poor Indian women

KATRA SHAHADATGANJ, India, Sept 01, 2014 (AFP) - Decorated with marigoldsand ribbons, 108 toilets unveiled in a tragedy-hit village are a small step inPrime Minister Narendra Modi's push to end open-air defecation for impoverishedIndian women.

The spotlessly clean toilets were donated on Sunday to the village innorthern Uttar Pradesh state, where scared and vulnerable women had long beenforced to trek nightly into the fields to relieve themselves.

"I believe no woman must lose her life just because she has to go out todefecate," said Bindeshwar Pathak, founder of sanitation charity Sulabh whichbuilt the toilets.

"Our aim is to provide a toilet to every household in the country in thenot too distant future," Pathak told AFP in Katra Shahadatganj village.

The village made headlines around the world in May when the bodies of twoschoolgirls were found hanging from a tree. They are thought to have gone outinto the fields after dark because their home, like most in their district,lacked a toilet.

Police are investigating whether the cousins, aged 12 and 14, weregang-raped, although no one has been formally charged and five men initiallyaccused are set to be released.

The incident sparked uproar in India, echoing the outrage over the fatalgang-rape of a student on a bus in New Delhi in 2012. But the circumstances which led the schoolgirls to trek outside at nightare not unusual in India.

UNICEF estimates that almost 594 million -- or nearly 50 percent of India'spopulation -- defecate in the open, with the situation acute in dirt-poor ruralareas.

Some 300 million women and girls are forced to squat outside, exposed notonly to the risks of disease and bacterial infection, but also harassment andassault by men.

Modi raised the often taboo subject during his Independence Day speech inAugust, saying India should strive to ensure every household has a toiletwithin the next four years.

"We are in the 21st century and yet there is still no dignity for women asthey have to go out in the open to defecate. Can you imagine the number ofproblems they have to face because of this?" Modi asked.

Mother-of-three Dhanwati Devi, one of the villagers to receive a newtoilet, said she could finally relieve herself without fear of being attackedin the dark.

"I used to dream my house will have a toilet one day. Now that I have one,I feel so proud and liberated," the 48-year-old told AFP, standing next to theblue and pink painted cubicle adorned with strings of flowers outside her home.

"I used to be so scared when going out in the deserted fields in the dark,because I could be attacked any time by depraved criminals," she said.

The uncle of the girls who were hanged said that for his family, thevillage's new toilets were symbols of both "hope and despair".

"Each time we see the toilets, we are reminded that our girls died becausewe didn't have one earlier," the uncle, who cannot be named for legal reasons,told AFP.

"But it also gives hope that our women will be safer now because they nolonger have to venture out in darkness."

Successive governments across India, as well as charities and campaigngroups, have long struggled to increase the number of toilets in villages andencourage their use. Experts say some households find defecating in the openmore convenient, while others face plumbing, sewage and maintenance problemswith their new latrines.

"Some people actually see open defecation as preferable to using toiletsbecause of cultural, religious or traditional beliefs," said Zach White, aresearch officer at the non-profit organisation WaterAid.

"To many, the very idea of defecating in or nearby your own house, albeitin a toilet, is bizarre and seen as less hygienic than defecating on openground away from where they live," White told AFP.

Lack of toilets and other sanitation issues costs India nearly $54 billionannually including through illnesses such as diarrhoea and lower productivity,a 2012 World Bank study found.

Workers from the Sulabh charity will now focus on educating villagers aboutimproved sanitation and the health benefits of using toilets.

The women of Katra Shahadatganj, however, need no such encouragement. "It's a luxury to be able to use the toilet when you need to," said Devi. "Now that we have this luxury, we are not going to let it go to waste." End

字詞解釋

trek(動詞) 艱苦跋涉、緩慢地行進。例如:The new facility allows women to collect fresh and unpolluted water on their doorsteps rather than being forced to trek many frustrating miles. 新設備讓婦女可在家門口收集新鲜、未污染的水,而不必跋涉許多里路。

aim(名詞)目標、目的。(動詞) + at 瞄準、針對,+at /for or to 旨在、目的。例如:This anti-smoking campaign is mainly aimed at young teenagers. 這場反吸菸運動主要是針對青少年。Cyberattacks aim to disrupt U.S. financial system. 網絡攻擊的目的是擾亂美國金融體系。

investigate(動詞) 調查、研究。不及物動詞時搭配into使用。例如: New Jersey prosecutors are investigating allegations of bullying within a local high school's football teams. 紐澤西檢察官正在調查當地高中足球隊涉及霸凌的案件。

spark(動詞)點燃、激勵、鼓舞。例如: T-Mobile deal collapse could spark telecom price war. 美國電信業者T-Mobile的交易失敗,可能點燃業界的價格戰。

uproar(名詞)騷動、騷亂、喧囂。例如: With the uproar on Twitter, Zara’s parent company, announced that it had stopped selling the shirt. 隨著社群網站推特上的騷動,平價流行服飾Zara的母公司宣布停止販售這款襯衫。

echo(動詞)回聲、回響、共鳴、仿效。例如: His warnings are echoed by many other experts in the field. 他的警告引起領域中其他專家的共鳴。

squat(動詞)蹲踞、蹲伏、蜷伏。例如: Jack squatted behind the bush to avoid being seen.傑克蹲在樹叢後面避免被人看見。

harassment (名詞)騷擾。例如: The official has agreed to a settlement ending the sexual harassment case against her former boss. 官員同意以和解的方式,解決與前雇主之間的性騷擾案。

assault(名詞)攻擊、襲擊、譴責、抨擊。例如: He was arrested for assaulting a police officer. 他因為襲警而被逮捕。

taboo(名詞)禁忌、忌諱。例如:A Japanese lawmaker handed Emperor Akihito a letter expressing fear about the health impact of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, breaking a taboo by trying to involve the emperor in politics.一位日本律師遞交天皇明仁一封信,表達對福島核災對健康影響的恐懼,試圖打破禁忌讓皇室參與政治事務。

sewage(名詞)汙水、汙穢物。例如: The grave problems of public hygiene are connected with the inefficient sewage system of the city. 公共衛生上的嚴重問題與該城市低效率的污水處理系統息息相關。sewage treatment plant 污水處理廠。

albeit(連接詞) 儘管、雖然。例如: Analysts and investors expect the German economy to pick up speed in the second half of the year, albeit at a slow pace. 儘管成長步伐緩慢,分析師和投資人預期德國經濟在今年下半年開始成長。End

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