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全球中央7月號
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全球中央7月號

缺師資 英推軍人轉任計畫

2016/7/1 11:25
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撰文及考題設計/British Council 英協教育中心 Melissa Henry   中譯/陳昱婷(中央社編譯)

In the past few years, British schools have suffered from a large teacher shortage, which in some schools and areas has caused larger class sizes or forced children to take places in another school further from their home. Various schemes have been introduced to train teachers in order to fill vacancies, one of them being the ‘Troops to Teachers’ program that recently started in 2014. This £2 million government-run program allows some ex-military service personnel to train to become teachers after completing a two-year program, as well as aids in transitioning back to civilian life.

過去幾年,英國學校師資嚴重短缺,導致有些學校和地區的班級規模變大,或是孩童被迫到離家較遠的學校上課。當局推出各種師資培育計畫來填補教師缺額,其中一項計畫就是2014年推出的「軍轉教」計畫。這項政府耗資200萬英鎊(約新台幣9, 562萬元)的計畫,為部分退伍軍人提供二年師資培訓課程,也協助他們重新回到平民生活。

‘Troops to Teachers’ is a joint program between the Department of Education and the Ministry of Defence. Trainees spend four days a week in the classroom for on-the-job training and one day of academic preparation at the University of Brighton, who has partnered in the scheme. At the end of two years, trainees earn an honours degree in education, with a specialization in either becoming a primary school teacher or a secondary school, subject specific teacher. They also earn a yearly salary ranging from £12,000-£16,000 whilst training. In its first year, the program recruited 41 trainees in 2014 and 28 of them graduated in 2016. The number of applicants and trainees have been increasing each year; however, the numbers are still lower than expected.

教育部和國防部聯手推出「軍轉教」計畫,受訓者每週四天在教室接受在職訓練,一天在計畫的合作大學布萊頓大學上學術準備課程。兩年課程結束後,受訓者可獲取教育榮譽學位,擔任小學老師或中學專業科目老師。培訓期間年薪為1萬2,000 英鎊到1萬6,000英鎊。2014年這項計畫展開第一年招募到41人,2016年共28人畢業。申請者和受訓者人數逐年增加,不過數字還是比預期低。

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The program is supported by Education Minister David Laws, who stated that during active military service, personnel learn values such as teamwork, discipline, leadership, and motivation, which have primed them to become good teachers. ‘Troops to Teachers’ also require good service records and pre¬requisites, such as a minimum grade C in English and math GCSEs and a minimum grade C science GCSE for prospective primary teachers. Therefore, it is argued that the criteria to enter the program are of a high standard, and thus the trainees who enroll are capable and committed to becoming excellent educationalists. However, like any scheme, there are its critics.

支持這項計畫的教育部部長勞斯表示,服兵役時,軍職人員學到團隊合作、紀律、領導力和激勵等價值觀,這些都是讓他們成為好老師的要素。「軍轉教」計畫也需要好的服役紀錄和一些必要條件,像是英文和數學的普通中等教育證書(GCSE)成績需至少為C,要成為小學老師GCSE 科學成績也需至少為C。因此有人認為門檻太高, 不過如此一來,報名通過的受訓者較有能力且願投入成為優秀教育家。然而,就如同其他計畫一樣,一定有批評聲浪出現。

Teacher unions disagree with the notion that ex-military personnel can transfer the skills and traits learnt in the service to teaching children in a classroom. They also argue that military skills and the skills required to teach children do not correlate with one another. Furthermore, unions claim that personnel without first degrees studying only once a week for two years is inadequate to teach a subject. However, they do acknowledge that some ex-military could make great teachers, but they should complete a proper teacher training degree so that they can succeed in the classroom, instead of a fast tracked one that does not fully cover all aspects needed to understand all the needs of a student.

教師工會不認為退伍軍人可以將服役時習得的技能和特質,在課堂上教授給學生,他們也認為軍事技能和教學技能未必有關聯。另外,工會指出沒有學士學位的軍職人員,兩年內每週只有一天上課,無法勝任教書工作。然而,他們承認有些退伍軍人是可以當好老師沒錯,但他們應該完成適當的師資培訓學位,在課堂上才能得心應手。而不是上非全面學習的速成班,卻還要求這樣就能瞭解學生的所有需求。

‘Troops to Teachers’ is just one response to the teacher deficiency in England. Although ‘Troops to Teachers’ has not generated the number of quality teachers it expected, the headmasters at the schools involved have applauded the trainees and welcome more in the future. The government will need to continue to brainstorm more ways to attract and train teachers to meet the demand as the population augments yearly.

「軍轉教」只是因應英格蘭師資短缺的其中一個措施。雖然透過「軍轉教」計畫培養出來的合格教師沒有比預期多,但參與這項計畫的學校校長對受訓者給予肯定,且歡迎未來更多人參加。在人口逐年增加下,英國政府將需要繼續腦力激盪想出更多方法,吸引和培訓師資以滿足需求。(完)

更多精彩內容請見《全球中央》2016年7月號;訂閱 《全球中央數位雜誌》;本文由《全球中央》雜誌授權刊載,未經同意禁止轉載。

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